Ureteroscopy is done To remove a kidney stone stuck in ureter.
This procedure involves passing a long, thin telescope, known as a ureteroscope, through the urethra into the bladder. It is then moved up into the ureter to visualize the stone .
While small stones are removed using a specialized stone basket, large stones are broken into smaller pieces using a laser or a similar device. A stent may be placed in the ureter for some days following the treatment in order to allow healing and prevent blockage caused by inflammation or spasm.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is used for removing larger stones. This procedure involves using a thin telescopic instrument called nephroscope through an incision from the back leading to the kidney. A tract is created from outside to the kidney through equipment is passed to visuaalize the stone and then braking them using laser or pneumatic energy source
Open surgery: It is very rarely performed nowadays.
Open surgery is usually recommended if there is an extremely large stone or an abnormal anatomy. This procedure involves creating an incision in your back to gain smooth access to the ureter and the kidney. The kidney stone can then be easily removed.