Kidney stones (renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis) are urinary deposits that affect more than 10 percent of people worldwide. More than half a million people go to emergency rooms or renal colic. Kidney stones are solid, pebble-like masses that develop in the urinary tract from salt and minerals that have crystallized and clumped together in the urine. The process results in stone formation.
- Smaller the stone the more likely get passed during urination without difficulty .
- Large stone can block a ureter (tube that connects kidney to bladder).
- When an obstruction occurs, a person may experience often agonizing pain radiating from
- the back to the side of the abdomen ,or may spread to the thigh or genitalia.
- When the stone enters the bladder there is feeling of urgency or blocked urine flow and blood in the urine
- Endoscopic Surgery is considered if a kidney stone does not pass out in the urine after reasonable period of time or causes frequent pain or when Stone is too large to pass on its own or when the
- Stone is associated with severe blockage to urinary passage and reduction in kidney function.
- Urologists use several procedures to break up, remove or bypass kidney stones depending on the location and size of stone.
- Open surgery for kidney stones is no longer done nowdays. All the procedures are endoscopy in nature.
- Large kidney stones over 2 cm size removed by less invasive percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) .
- Small tract is created to enter the kidney and stones removed through small key hole.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: This method uses shock waves that enter through the kidney and target only the stones. SWL is most effective for small stones in the kidney and upper ureter . It is a day care procedure.
Flexible ureteroscopy & laser Lithotripsy: This endoscopic surgery is minimally invasive-requires no incisions on your body and this will be performed under general anaesthesia. Ureteroscope is placed into normal urethral passage to enter the ureter and kidney. The scope enters the urinary tract through the urethra and into the ureter or kidney to access the stone.
Laser fiber is passed through the scope to pulverize the stone. Larger fragments be removed using a basket.
Smaller sand-like pieces get passed through the urine. A temporary stent may be placed in the ureters to keep the ureter open, improve urine flow, and help the stone pieces pass. The ureteral stent will be removed after a few days or weeks.
Dr. N. Anandan is a senior consultant at Apollo spectra hospitals and Kauvery hospital in Chennai. He will also be available in his urology clinic at Anand saras apartments 392,TTK Alwarpet, One of the best urologists for kidney stone removal in Chennai. He has more than 30 years experience in Urological, Andrological practice and laser kidney stones surgery in Chennai.
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