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Endoscopic Urologic Surgery


Urology is truly the home of endoscopy. Many diseases of the urinary tract require endoscopic surgery. These include kidney stones, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, ureteral strictures, and tumours within the kidney.

Few of the endoscopic procedures performed to restore the urological problems are

CYSTOSCOPY

It is a diagnosis and surgical technique that helps to identify and fix the underlying issues of the urinary bladder and urethra. It makes use of a long tube instrument with an attached camera known as a cystoscope to view the condition. It is a daycare procedure conducted under anaesthesia. Special instruments can be passed through the cystoscope to remove an abnormal polyp, break stones in the urinary tract, and to take tissue samples for biopsy.

URETEROSCOPY

This procedure uses a ureteroscope to look inside the ureters and kidneys. Unlike the cystoscope, ureteroscope has an extended longer and thinner tube attached with a camera that helps the urologist to see the detailed images of the kidneys. This procedure is mainly used to treat kidney stones. It is conducted under anaesthesia and mostly is a daycare procedure that does not require hospitalization

PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY/NEPHROLITHOTRIPSY

This procedure is used to treat kidney stones in patients that are irregular and large and can't be treated using ureteroscopy. The process involves making a small incision at the back to access the kidney. The stones are then removed by a rigid straight instrument called the nephroscope. If the stones are broken and removed the technique is known as nephrolithotripsy. The process is conducted under general anaesthesia and requires 2-3 days of hospitalization.

TRANSURETHRAL BLADDER TUMOR RESECTION (TURBT)

This treatment is used for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of early bladder cancer. During the procedure, a tool called a resectoscope is inserted through the urethra to reach the bladder. The surgeon then removes or cuts off the polyp with the help of the small loop. Additional treatments like intravesical therapy are prescribed to lower the risk of cancer returning.

TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF THE PROSTATE (TURP)

It is a surgery performed to treat urinary problems caused due to enlarged prostate. This procedure is an effective option for men with moderate to severe urinary problems that haven't responded to medication. Usually, a resectoscope is inserted through the tip of the penis inside the bladder that helps to trim the tissue from the prostate. The entire procedure might take 60-90 minutes. This procedure nowadays is replaced by a better treatment technique called Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (Holep) that makes use of a laser to treat the condition.

OPTICAL URETHROTOMY

Optical Internal Urethrotomy is used to treat urethral strictures, a medical condition when the urethra becomes narrow. It is a procedure that involves using urethrotome to widen a narrowed urethra.urethrotomy are usually daycare procedures performed on men as urethral strictures in women are very rare.

Authored By Dr. N. Anandan

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About Dr. N. Anandan

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Dr. N. Anandan is a senior consultant at Kauvery hospital and Apollo spectra hospitals in Chennai

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