Prostate cancer

It is the commonest cancer in men

Fortunately it is less common in India compared to Europe and North America. Prostate cancer refers to cancer that occurs in prostate gland – the gland which produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports the sperm. One of the most common types of cancer in men, Prostate cancer generally grows and spreads slowly and often remains confined to the prostate gland. It can spread by lymphatic or vascular channel to surrounding areas or to bone, liver and lungs.

Symptoms:

  • Trouble in urinating, urinary retention

  • Reduced stream of urine

  • Blood in the urine

  • Back pain, difficulty in passing motion

  • Tired feeling, swelling in the neck

prostate-cancer

Who are at risk ?

  • Men who are above 60 years.

  • Black men are at a greater risk of prostate cancer when compared to men of other races.

  • Family history of prostate cancer

  • Increased intake of fatty food, Obesity

Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

The doctor will do rectal examination to feel the prostate .It’s size, consistency and fixity over the rectal mucosa can be checked.

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests

A sample of your blood is taken to check for prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Prostate-specific antigen is a protein produced by the prostate. Men who have Prostate cancer tend to have a large amount of PSA in their blood. PSA levels higher than normal could be mostly due to prostate cancer and a biopsy would often be recommended.

Abdominal ultrasound is done to check for dilation of urinary system, residual urine and prostate volume

Trans-rectal Ultrasound Scan (TRUS)

Ultrasound scans make use of sound waves to create an image of a certain region or organ inside the body. A small probe is inserted into the rectum and an image of the prostate gets displayed on a screen. The TRUS scan is mainly used to assess the size and density of the prostate.

If the initial tests reveal that there is a possibility of cancer, sampling of prostate can be done ( Biopsy). The samples are examined by a pathologist and the diagnosis is confirmed.

Further tests like MRI Abdmen or CT abdomen, bone scan will be required to assess the extent of the disease.

TREATMENT OPTIONS

Treatment options for early prostate cancer (Cancer is confined only to prostate gland and no further spread). Robotic prostate surgery removes the entire prostate gland and the urethra is joined to the bladder neck. The other options is to give radiotherapy.

Transurethral resection of prostate is required if the patient presents with urinary retention. When the disease has spread beyond prostate area or spread to the bones, hormonal treatment is given in the form of injections and tablets. Severe bone pain caused by bone spread is treated local radiotherapy